Motto: Reviresco (I flourish again)
Some controversy has surrounded the origin of the name Marshall, because of the form in which it appeared in early records, Maccusville, in the 12th and 13th century. It was commonly thought to be of Norman origin. It is however, of Old English derivation from the personal or forename Maccus and the Old English name for a pool ‘wae;’. The original pool on the Tweed, near Kelso Bridge, is still locally known as ‘Max Wheel’. It was obtained by grant by Maccus, son of Undewyn, a Saxon Lord, during the years 1124 and 1153 and the lands around the fishery took their name from Maccus’ Weil.
The place name Maxton in Roxburghshire is probably also named after the same person. The Barony of Maxton passed out of the hands of Maccus and his family at the end of the 12th century. It is with Maccus’ son Herbert that the name begins to be used in a way which we would today recognise as a surname. While Maccus was recorded as ‘Son of Undewyn’ his son was ‘of Maccuswell’ and it was in this title that he bestowed a charter upon Kelso Abbey. Herbert’s son John became Royal Chamberlain c1232 and acquired Caerlaverock Castle, succeeded by his brother Aymer. His descendant Sir Eustace of Maxwell held Caerlaverock Castle in the interest of Edward I’s claim to the throne but later dismantled its fortifications in the interests of Robert the Bruce, becoming one of the signators of the Declaration of Arbroath in 1320.
The Maxwells were appointed as Lords of the Marches under James I, and latterly the 5th Lord Maxwell was appointed Regent to King James V. In the 17th century the family acquired the title Earl of Nithsdale. The 5th Earl was sentenced to death in Westminister for his part in the 1715 rebellion, but escaped with the help of his wife, and fled to Rome. The Maxwells have many branches, the principal ones being Carruchan, Monreith, Pollock, Cardoness, Farnham and Sprinkel. There is no trusted authority for the source of this tartan. Some similarities are noted with MacIntosh motifs. The second count comes from Clan Maxwell Association of USA.
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